Isolation refers to the electrical and physical separation of individual components or points in a circuit. Isolation is used in power circuits, high-speed and long-distance communications. There are five types of insulation: Functional insulation, Basic insulation, Supplementary insulation, Double insulation, and Reinforced insulation. The commonly used insulation methods are galvanic, optical, magnetic, and capacitive insulations.
When used in high-voltage power circuits, the isolation prevents equipment malfunctions and electric shock to users due to current surges, etc. In high-speed and long-distance communications, it prevents noise generation due to ground loops by connecting the grounds of each communication point.
The isolation system is mostly used in programmable power supplies or motor control systems, industrial sensors and various interfaces, and measurement devices. Isolators have certain important parameters to select: power supply current, input signal current, and ranges of power supply and signal voltage. Creepage distance and spatial distance are also important in parameters.
The isolation system comprises of isolation amplifiers, digital isolators, optical isolators, photocouplers, transformers, coils, and other devices. They are to follow individual standards depending on the applications in various areas of industry, information technology, medication, home, measurement, control, and telecommunication.
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