It is the warranty range of input voltage according to the specification. In terms of AC input, it shows the root mean squared value. In terms of AC input, there are single-phase input and 3-phase input which is often used for high power.
It flows into the power supply which is shown by root mean squared values. Because of their built-in rectifier circuits in capacitor input type, the input currents of series method as well as switching method generate sine wave but waveform as shown in the figure below. With PFC (power factor improvement circuit), the input current is a sine wave.
Input Power (Input Capacity)
It is indicated as a power to input into the power supply. In terms of the power supply, all of the supplied power are not always consumed. Taking account of this, we consider that there are two types of input powers; one is apparent power which flows into the power supply, the other is effective power to be consumed by the power supply. The difference power between the two powers is not used in the power supply and returns to the commercial power part.
It is provided by the ratio between the output power and the effective input power. The specification is described with rated output power, and as the output current decreases, the efficiency deteriorated
It is provided by the ratio between the apparent power and the effective power. Basically, the value is 0.6 in capacitor input type, or 0.9 with PFC (power factor improvement circuit).
In switching power supply, high current flows more than ten times to several hundred times which is greater than in normal operations. It shows the wave height value of current flowing at the moment when the input voltage is applied to the power supply. In series power supply, there are two types of current, one for rectifier circuits in capacitor input type at the secondary side and another for saturated transformers after the power is supplied in the 0-phase.
From the view point of safety, the current is stipulated in the safety regulation in most countries. It flows into the ground via stray capacitance both of parts at primary side and transformers between primary and secondary sides. It also runs through grounded capacitances of the noise filter. The measurement is to be conducted as indicated in the figure below.
It is a voltage fluctuation to move within the specification.
[ Static Load Regulation ]
It shows the output alteration moving from null load to the rated capacity.
[ Dynamic Load Regulation ]
It is also called as transient response. It is the output response of the voltage rapidly moving from no-load to the rates capacity.
It is a component which is synchronized to the input frequency as well as switching frequency superimposed to the output voltage, and the value is provided with peak-peak. If a new capacitor is installed at the output side in the switching power supply, the component to synchronize with the switching frequency will be attenuated. Meanwhile, the component synchronized to the input frequency remains unchanged. The output voltage of series power supply only includes components synchronized to the input frequency.
The output noise only indicates noise components except certain ripples superimposed to the output voltage, and the value is provided with peak-peak. As most of the switching power supplies are equipped with inverters with rectangular wave, noises occurred from switching transistor and rectifier diode are made in the output.
Overvoltage protection (O.V.P)
This function is essential for protecting the power supply to prevent from applying the voltage to the load exceeding the regulated level. When the protection circuit against overvoltage is activated, the power supply is suspended the operation.
Heat Radiation Design
As power converters, power supplies emit heat of the difference in conversion efficiency. One of the main points in designing is how to release the heat effectively.
[ Natural Air cooling ]
The heat is released by radiation and convection without using forced cooling. You need to secure a sufficient space to pass the air for radiation, taking into account that the heat is released by convection. In using cases, make sure to install the outside air opening to prevent the heated air from increasing inside. In this case, you should adopt a larger size of discharge opening at the stage of designing compared with the inlet. Make sure to install the power supply in the appropriate direction before operating.
[ Forced Air colling ]
As the power supply itself is built in the fan for forced-air cooling, you can regulate the ambient temperature only (of air influx). Be careful not to close the two openings for air influx or discharge.
The operation is used for turning on or off the output of power supply from far way, or to spare the time for startup or shutdown in several power supplies. In this function, the output of power supply is turned on or off with external signal. It is available with such devices like relay contact, transistor, and IC. Please confirm respective specifications depending on types of turning on with LOW, turning off with HIGH, or vice versa.
[ Insulation resistance ]
It shows the resistance value to apply regulatory DC voltage between specified terminals.
[ Withstand Voltage ]
It is a voltage without having spark discharges or causing no damage to the power supplies as AC voltage is applied between certain terminals. When it comes to withstand voltage testing, the applied voltage must be raised slowly starting 0V, the voltage needs to be applied using a zero-cross switch.
It is the warranty range of ambient temperature in operation according to the specification of power supply. The temperature value is provided as the power supply is horizontally placed in no wind. No other option is accepted in installing except the above. Concerning power supplies with built-in fan for forced air cooling inside, the value indicates the temperature of flesh air. The service life of power supply could be shortened by half whenever the temperature increases by 10 degrees. As long as you use the power supply with the lowest-level of temperature, you can extend service life of the equipment.
It is an ambient temperature for storage to prevent power supplies from worsening the performance in non-operating status. Be careful not to store power supplies in high temperature for lengthy periods of time which might lead to further deterioration of electrolytic capacitors.