X-ray tube voltage is the voltage applied to the X-ray tube. In an X-ray tube, a high-voltage power supply is connected between the cathode and anode. The high voltage accelerates electrons generated from the cathode to collide with the anode, generating X-rays. Higher X-ray tube voltage produces X-rays with shorter wavelengths, which penetrate materials more easily.
For example, the shortest wavelength X-ray generated from an X-ray tube voltage of 100 kV, the maximum energy X-ray generated from an acceleration of 100 kV is 100 keV, so the formula using Planck's constant E = hν = hc/λ [ J ] gives 1.24/100 keV = 0.0124 nm (0.124Å).
Another feature is that X-ray tubes generate total intensity X-rays that are proportional to the square of the tube voltage.
For more information on X-ray tube voltage and transmission power, please refer to the Q&A section "What is the tube voltage or acceleration voltage necessary for X-ray inspection systems?".
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