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# Tech Tips

In this article, we will introduce how to read resistance and capacitor values, which form the foundation of electric resistance.

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## Fixed Film Resistor Color Code

### How to Read Resistance Values

Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple Gray White Silver Gold
Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - -
Numerical value 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 - - - 10-2 10-1
Tolerance ±20% ±1% ±2% - - - - ±10% ±5%

4700 Ω = 4.7 kΩ

4700 Ω = 4.7 kΩ

## Chip Marking

### Chip resistors

The resistance marking is shown with a combination of alphabetic characters on the top surface. The following is an example of the transformation rules. (It also has other particular markings or rules.)

[Example]
• 103 = 10 x 103 = 10000 Ω (10 kΩ)
• 1003 = 10 x 103 = 100000 Ω (100 kΩ)
• R047 = replacing the R with decimal point = 0.047 Ω (47 mΩ)
• 10L0 = replacing the L with decimal point of mΩ = 10 mΩ

### Chip capacitor or coil

• 471 = 10 x 101 = 470 pF
10 x 101 = 470 µH

## Capacitor/Standard Resistance Value

In considering deviations, E series data indicates the value that does not overlap the next value.

E3 E6 E12 E24
+/- 40% tolerances +/- 20% tolerances +/- 40% tolerances +/- 20% tolerances
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1.1
1 1 1.2 1.2
1 1 1.2 1.3
1 1.5 1.5 1.5
1 1.5 1.5 1.6
1 1.5 1.8 1.8
1 1.5 1.8 2
2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
2.2 2.2 2.2 2.4
2.2 2.2 2.7 2.7
2.2 2.2 2.7 3
2.2 3.3 3.3 3.3
2.2 3.3 3.3 3.6
2.2 3.3 3.9 3.9
2.2 3.3 3.9 4.3
4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7
4.7 4.7 4.7 5.1
4.7 4.7 5.6 5.6
4.7 4.7 5.6 6.2
4.7 6.8 6.8 6.8
4.7 6.8 6.8 7.5
4.7 6.8 8.2 8.2
4.7 6.8 8.2 9.1
E96
+/- 1% tolerances
1.00 1.62 2.61 4.22 6.81
1.02 1.65 2.67 4.32 6.98
1.05 1.69 2.74 4.42 7.15
1.07 1.74 2.80 4.53 7.32
1.10 1.78 2.87 4.64 7.50
1.13 1.82 2.94 4.75 7.68
1.15 1.87 3.01 4.87 7.87
1.18 1.91 3.09 4.99 8.06
1.21 1.96 3.16 5.11 8.25
1.24 2.00 3.24 5.23 8.45
1.27 2.05 3.32 5.36 8.66
1.30 2.10 3.40 5.49 8.87
1.33 2.15 3.48 5.62 9.09
1.37 2.21 3.57 5.76 9.31
1.40 2.26 3.65 5.90 9.53
1.43 2.32 3.74 6.04 9.76
1.47 2.37 3.8 6.19 -
1.50 2.43 3.92 6.34 -
1.54 2.49 4.02 6.49 -
1.58 2.55 4.12 6.65 -
• The theoretical figure is represented by the geometric series.
• How to calculate the common ratio of geometric series by regarding it as "a": : n = 1, 2 or more, and a

## Capacitor Marking

### Ceramic and film capacitors

Capacitance is represented by a three-digit number. The units of measurement are pF (picofarads).

#### Film capacitor

##### Reference
• 1 pF = 1 x 10 e - 12 F
• 1 μF = 1 x 10 e - 6 F

## Corresponding Code of Capacitor and Resistance

Marking Capacitor Resistance
106 10 μF 10 MΩ
105 1 μF 1 MΩ
104 0.1 μF 100 kΩ
103 0.01 μF 10 kΩ
102 1000 pF 1 kΩ
101 100 pF 100 Ω
100 10 pF 10 Ω

E series: The resistance does not always include all arbitrary values, and it is defined based on E series.

Rated voltage: Capacitors have the rated voltage, and in some cases, they are directly shown by 50 V or 100 V, and also marked by alphabetic character codes. For instance, 0E is 2.5 V.

Rated voltage [V]
A B C D E F G H J K P V W
0 1 1.25 1.6 2 2.5 3.15 4 5 6.3 8 1.8 3.5 4.5
1 10 12.5 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 80 18 35 45
2 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 180 350 450
3 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 5000 6300 8000 1800 3500 4500