Each type of detector is named after its principle, material, element, method, system, performance, application, and target. Different names may call the same detection device for different detection targets, and the same detection target may have different detection methods.This section classifies and explains detectors that mainly use high voltages.

Detection Detectors Abbreviation Summary Voltage, etc.
Light Photomultiplier tube PMT Photomultiplier Tubes are vacuum tube type detectors that can detect faint light (low-light) with high sensitivity. Light is converted into electrons at the photocathode of the incident window, and the signal is amplified by an electron multiplier tube. To learn more, please visit  Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) 1000 to 2000V
Light Multi-pixel photon counter MPPC MPPC is the same as Si-PM. See Si-PM (internal link). It is commonly referred to as Si-PM. Hamamatsu Photonics markets the product under the name MPPC. 20 to 100V
Light Silicon photomultiplier Si-PM Si-PM is a photodetector that operates based on the avalanche photodiode multiplication principle of semiconductor detectors. They are smaller than conventional Photomultiplier Tubes, have sensitivity similar to PMTs, and operate at lower voltages. 20 to 100V
Light Photodiode PD "Photodiodes are the most common light-detecting element and are sometimes abbreviated as PD. A device that converts light into electrical signals, it is also used in the light receiving part of optical discs in optical communications.
For the difference between a photodiode, a PIN photodiode, and an ADP, see the following page.  Photodiode
Light and Radiation PIN photodiode PIN-PD A pin photodiode is a photodiode with an I-layer (intrinsic region) structure between P-type and N-type semiconductors, also abbreviated as PIN-PD. Requires a reverse bias power supply and has excellent high-speed response. It is mainly used as a detector for optical communications. It is also used as a detection element for X-rays. For the difference between a photodiode, a PIN photodiode, and an ADP, see the following page.  Photodiode 100V to 200V
Light Avalanche photodiode APD "An avalanche photodiode is a photodetector with a signal amplification function. Si-APDs and InGaAs-APDs are available. Because of its amplification function, it is used to measure faint light (low-light). Reverse bias power supply is required, and Si-APD requires a DC power supply of several hundred volts. InGaAs-APDs operate with a low bias power supply and are used for optical communications. It has a signal amplification function, but is not as sensitive as Si-PM or PMT.
For the difference between a photodiode, a PIN photodiode, and an ADP, see the following page.  Photodiode
Electrostatic deflection: Single, reversible, 2 to 10kV etc, Detector: Depends on the detector
Radiation Survey meter - Survey meter is a generic term for radiation measuring instruments. Depending on the detection method, there are ionization chamber survey meters, GM tube survey meters, and scintillation survey meters. -
Radiation Ionization chamber, ion chamber - An ionization chamber is a type of radiation detection device. Similar detectors include proportional counters and GM tubes, which produce different signals depending on the voltage applied. The voltage applied in the ionization chamber region ranges from +30 to +300 volts.
For more information about ionization chambers, please see the following page.  Ionization Chamber
+30 to +300V
Radiation Proportional counter PC A proportional counter is a type of ionizing radiation detector. Like an ionization chamber, it measures ion pairs due to radiation entering the detector. A voltage pulse proportional to the number and energy of the radiation is obtained as a signal.
The voltage applied in the proportional counter area is about +500V to +2000V.
+500 to +2000V
Radiation Geiger muller tube GM-tube GM tubes are a type of detector used in survey meters, also known as Geiger counters. The applied voltage in the GM region varies depending on the structure and type of gas, and ranges from +400V to +1200V are used.
For more information, see the Geiger counter page below.  Geiger counter (Geiger-Müller tube)
+400 to +1200V
Radiation Scintillation detector - Scintillation detectors are detectors used for radiation measurements, such as survey meters and area monitors. A scintillator converts radiation into light (visible light), which is then converted into an electrical signal by a Photomultiplier Tube for detection. NaI and CsI are the main scintillators used in survey meters. Other scintillators for radiation include inorganic scintillators, plastic scintillators, and liquid scintillators. 1000 to 2000V
Radiation NaI (Sodium iodide) detector NaI The NaI detector is a detector that uses NaI (sodium iodide) for the scintillator portion of the scintillation detector. Detectors using NaI can measure with high sensitivity, but they are tidal and sensitive to shock, so care must be taken when handling them. Some detectors have energy resolution and conversion to dose by line quality and intensity. (Also called spectrosurvey meter, spectral survey meter, or spectroradiometer.) 1000 to 2000V
Radiation CsI (Cesium iodide) detector CsI The CsI detector is a detector that uses CsI (cesium iodide) as the scintillator part of the scintillation detector. It is less sensitive than detectors using NaI, but it is less tidal and easier to handle. 1000 to 2000V
Radiation Solid state detector SSD SSD is a radiation detector used to detect X-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons. The Si (Li) detector was mainly used as a detector for SEM-EDX, called SSD. Although it had excellent energy resolution, it is no longer used because it requires liquid nitrogen cooling, which makes the detector large and time-consuming. In recent energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyzers and SEM-EDX, SDD (Silicon Drift Detectors) are used. 300V to 600V
Radiation Silicon drift detector SDD SDD (Silicon Drift Detector) is a radiation detector used for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis and SEM-EDX. This detector has replaced the Si(Li) detector because it can detect with high sensitivity even with a larger element area, without reducing the energy (wavelength) resolution. The detector element is characterized by a pattern called a drift ring. 100V to 300V
Radiation Transition radiation detector TRD Transition Radiation Detectors (TRDs) are particle detectors used in high-energy particle collider experiments. Transition radiation, which occurs when charged particles pass through the boundary between a metal foil with a large atomic number and a gas or other substance, is detected with a proportional counter tube or wire chamber. -
Neutron Neutron detection - There are several types of neutron detectors, including scintillation detectors, gas proportional counters, and semiconductor detectors. Since neutron beams have a strong visioning power and neutrons carry no electric charge, their detection is by measuring reactions due to their interaction with the nuclei of matter. Neutrons play an important role in nuclear reactions such as nuclear power generation. -
Radiation Si detector, Si(Li) detector - Silicon detectors primarily refer to solid-state detectors. Note, however, that in a broad sense, a detector made of silicon semiconductor material may be called a silicon detector. The term silicon detector is also used as a comparison with germanium detectors, mainly in radiation detectors. For solid-state detectors, see the SSD section. 300V to 600V
Gamma ray Germanium detector Ge detector Germanium semiconductor detectors are semiconductor detectors that can analyze radionuclides. It has excellent energy resolution and is useful for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Germanium semiconductor detectors are made of high-purity germanium crystals and must be cooled below -200°C with liquid nitrogen. 2000V to 5000V
Gamma ray cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector CZT A CZT detector is a type of semiconductor detector that detects radiation. This detector uses CZT crystals, in which CdTe is partially replaced from Cd to Zn. It is used in the same gamma-ray spectroscopy as germanium semiconductor detectors. Unlike germanium semiconductor detectors, CZT detectors can operate at room temperature. 500V to 2000V
Gamma ray Cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector CdTe CdTe detectors are radiation detectors that use cadmium telluride (cadmium telluride). They can efficiently convert radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays into electrons and are used as image sensors for radiation as well as detectors. 400V to 1000V
Charged particle Charged particle detector - Charged particle detector is a generic term for detectors that detect and measure ionized atoms and charged elementary particles. Detects charged particles (charged particles) such as alpha and beta rays. Charged particle detectors include the following detectors Ionization chambers, proportional counters, Geiger-Muller counters, solid-state detectors, time projection chambers -
Charged particle Electron multiplier EM An electron multiplier tube is a detector that amplifies charged particles such as electrons and ions in a vacuum and measures them as a current at the anode. There are discrete dynodeDiscrete dynode structures and continuous dynodeContinuous dynode structures. Discrete dynodes are known as Photomultiplier Tubes with a photocathode in the incident window. 1000V to 3000V
Charged particle Channel electron multiplier channel tron A channel electron multiplier (CEM), also called a channeltron, is a type of electron multiplier tube. In a vacuum, signals from electrons, ions, and photons are amplified and detected. 2000V to 4000V
Charged particle Microchannel plate MCP A microchannel plate is a disk-shaped plate with numerous holes and a structure that amplifies charged particles and optical signals. MCP does not have a detection function, but it is sometimes referred to as MCP in combination with other detectors.
For more information, please see the following microchannel plates. Micro Channel Plate (MCP)
100V to 1000V
Charged particle Time-of-Flight detector TOF A TOF (time-of-flight) detector is a type of detection method used in Mass Spectrometry (MS) and other instruments. By scanning and adjusting the electric field, spectra and specific components are analyzed based on differences in time-of-flight due to mass. Electron multipliers (EM) and microchannel plates are used as detectors. A reversible high-voltage power supply with switchable positive and negative polarity is used for electrostatic lenses. Electrostatic deflection: Single, reversible, 2 to 10kV etc, Detector: Depends on the detector
Charged particle Flame ionization detector FID A hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID) is the standard detector used in gas chromatography. It is very sensitive and has a wide dynamic range. The ionized sample is collected at the anode of the detector and converted into an electrical signal. -
Charged particle Charged Aerosol Detector CAD A charged particle detector (CAD), also called a corona charged particle detector, is a general-purpose detector for liquid chromatography (HPLC). When a sample is sprayed with a nebulizer, the solvent vaporizes and the components become particles. The particle is given a positive charge and measured as a current value. -
Charged particle Ion trap detector - An ion trap detector is a detection method (detector) used in Mass Spectrometry (MS)s. Supplemental ions generated from the sample are analyzed. Ion trap detectors include quadrupole ion traps, linear ion traps, and pole ion traps. -
Charged particle Ion detector - An ion detector is a device that detects ions in a sample to measure its composition and quantity. Ion detectors are used in chemical, biological, and physical analyzers, as well as in environmental monitoring. There are several types of ion detection with different operating principles. -
Charged particle Gas ionization detector - A gas ionization detector is a type of radiation detector. Detects electrical signals produced by ionization of gases by radiation. It is used in radiation measurements, particle physics, nuclear medicine, X-ray analyzers, and other ionizing radiation measurements. Gas ionization detectors include Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters, proportional counters (proportional counters), ionization chambers -
Charged particle Barrier discharge Ionization Detector BID A barrier discharge ionization detector (BID) is a type of ionization detector used in gas chromatography (GC). Useful for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and compounds with low ionization potential.
It has the advantage over conventional detectors such as flame ionization detectors (FID) and electron capture detectors (ECD) of being able to detect trace amounts of analytes with high sensitivity.
Charged particle Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detector SCD The Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detector (SCD: Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detector) is a detector specialized for the detection of sulfur-containing compounds in gas chromatography (GC).
Chemiluminescent sulfur detectors have the advantage of higher sensitivity and wider dynamic range than other sulfur detection techniques such as flame photometric detectors (FPD) and flame ionization detectors (FID).
Charged particle Quadrupole detector - A quadrupole detector is a common detector in Mass Spectrometry (MS)s. Ions are separated and detected based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). RF or DC voltages are applied to each rod of the quadrupole so that only ions with a specific mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) can pass through the detector. The quadrupole section functions as a mass Image processing filters and the ions that pass through are detected by an electron multiplier tube or other means. By varying the RF and DC voltages, it is possible to scan a fixed range of mass-to-charge ratios and obtain mass spectra. -
Charged particle Flame Photometric Detector FPD A Flame Photometric Detector (FPD) is a specialized detector used in gas chromatography (GC) for the detection and quantitation of sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) compounds. It is very sensitive to these elements and is useful in environmental analysis, petroleum refining, and areas where the presence of sulfur and phosphorus compounds must be monitored.
The sample is excited through the process of flame ionization, and the ions emit light of a specific wavelength as they return to their ground state. This light is detected by a Photomultiplier Tube.
Charged particle Flame Thermionic Detector FTD A thermal ion detector (FTD) is a specialized detector used in gas chromatography (GC) that excels in the detection of organic nitrogen and organophosphorus compounds.
When a sample containing a carbon-nitrogen bond (CN) passes through the heating coil, it reacts with the rubidium radical produced by the coil, resulting in ionization (CN-). The ion current produced by this process is detected.
It is very effective in analyzing certain types of compounds, such as pesticide residues.
Charged particle Thermal Conductivity Detector TCD A thermal conductivity detector (TCD) is one of the most commonly used detectors in gas chromatography (GC). It is based on the principle of detecting changes in the thermal conductivity of a carrier gas caused by the presence of analyte molecules eluting from a chromatographic column.
The difference in thermal conductivity between the carrier gas and the carrier gas containing the specimen molecules causes an imbalance in the Wheatstone bridge circuit (measuring the change in filament resistance). This generates an electrical signal proportional to the concentration.
Charged particle Electron Capture Detector ECD An electron capture detector (ECD) is a highly sensitive detector commonly used primarily in gas chromatography (GC). It is especially used to detect compounds containing electronegative functional groups such as halogens (chlorinated pesticides, brominated flame retardants, etc.) and nitro groups.
It measures the electrical signal generated by the ion current.
Image Image sensor - An image sensor is a two-dimensional array of sensing elements to obtain an image. Image sensors such as CCDs and CMoperating systems are commonly known and used in cameras. -
Image Flat panel detector FPD A flat panel detector (flat panel detector) is a detector used to obtain radiation images. In the past, it was necessary to take images on film and develop them, but now it is possible to take X-rays in real time, and this technology is becoming popular not only for medical use but also for industrial use. For more information, visit  Flat Panel Detector (FPD) -
Image Photodiode array detector - A photodiode array is a detector with a row of photodiodes. Also called line sensor, etc. It is used in in-line inspection equipment, etc. -
Image Image intensifier I.I. "An image intensifier is a vacuum detector that amplifies faint light (low-light) to produce an image.
Image intensifiers, such as night vision, provide vision in the dark. Image intensifiers for X-rays convert X-rays into electrons at the incident plane, amplify the signal, and project the X-ray image on a phosphor. With the widespread use of flat panel detectors, X-ray image intensifiers are rarely used anymore."
1kV to 30kV
Radiation, etc. Calorimeter, Microcalorimeter - Detectors, called calorimeters or microcalorimeters, measure energy from the temperature that rises slightly when light or radiation is absorbed by an object. It has extremely high resolution and is used in particle physics and X-ray spectroscopy. -
Application Cherenkov detector - A Cherenkov detector is a detector for detecting Cherenkov light. As a high-energy charged particle moves through a medium, it emits a cone of Cherenkov light in the direction of travel. Cherenkov detectors are used in the fields of high-energy physics, astronomy, and particle physics. -
Application Laser range finder - Laser rangefinders are so-called rangefinders. Also called laser rangefinders or laser distance meters, they are used to measure the distance to a target. Distance meters mainly for golf are called laser rangefinders. -
Application Secondary electron detector SED A secondary electron detector (SED) is a detector used in  Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
Secondary electrons generated when an electron beam is irradiated (scanned) are detected and captured in an image.
It consists of a focusing electrode, a scintillator, and a Photomultiplier Tube, each of which requires a high voltage.
PMT voltage and corrector: +300 V scintillator: +10 kV
Application Backscattered electron detector BE,BSE A reflection electron detector is a type of detector used in  Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)s. Reflected electrons generated when a sample is irradiated with an electron beam are detected and captured in an image. The reflected electron detector is located at the end of the object lens. A four-segmented silicon detector is used. 5V to 20V
Detectors Summary
Phosphor A phosphor is a substance that emits light by converting the wavelength (energy) of incident light into a specific wavelength. It is used in cold cathode tube (CRT) screens and fluorescent lamps. Typical phosphors are called by numbers such as P20, P22, and P43.
Fluorescence Fluorescence and phosphorescence are phenomena in which a substance exposed to light or radiation radiates a specific wavelength. It is used in the authenticity testing of banknotes, X-ray fluorescence analysis, fluorescent labeling of organisms, and mineralogy. It usually emits a wavelength longer than the wavelength of the incident light. (In a state that emits light in visible light when irradiated with ultraviolet light from a black light)
Luminescence There are various types of luminescence. Cold light is called luminescence, not incandescent light caused by flames or other heat. The most famous examples are light emission by cathodoluminescence and chemical reactions, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by electroluminescence, and fluorescence by photoluminescence.
Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the division of "light" emitted or absorbed by a material into wavelengths. Originally, light was expanded by a prism or diffraction grating according to its wavelength, which was called spectroscopy, and the spectra of the spectra were called spectra. Spectroscopy is a method of quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing the components and properties of a substance by finding the wavelengths (spectra) specific to the molecules that make up the substance by spectroscopy of the electromagnetic spectrum, including infrared (IR), visible light, ultraviolet (UV), x-rays, and gamma rays, using a spectroscope.
Wavelength Wavelength is a unit of light period. The range of wavelengths from 380 nm (violet) to 780 nm (red) is considered visible light. Wavelength can be converted to energy (electron volts, eV). In the wavelength region shorter than vacuum ultraviolet, kiloelectron volts (keV) and MeV are mainly used. Conversely, in the infrared region, frequency is used as the unit of measurement.
Photon A photon is a type of subatomic particle, which is the name given to light (electromagnetic waves) when considered as a particle.
Electron Electrons (electrons) are a type of elementary particle, one of the building blocks of the atomic nucleus, and have a negative electric mass.
Ion Ion refers to the electrified state of an atom. The state in which electrons and protons are balanced is called neutral; the state with fewer electrons is called cation and the state with more electrons is called anion.
Radiation Radiation is a general term for particles and electromagnetic waves emitted from matter. Alpha, beta, gamma, X-rays, and neutron radiation are included in radiation.
Gamma ray Gamma rays, a type of radiation, are electromagnetic waves emitted from transitions in atomic nuclei.
Incidentally, X-rays are electromagnetic waves produced by transitions of orbital electrons in atoms, and are distinguished from gamma rays and X-rays according to where they are produced.
Neutron Neutrons are uncharged particles that make up the nucleus of an atom. The nucleus is composed of neutrons and protons, which are collectively called nucleons. Free neutrons decay to protons by beta decay with an average lifetime of about 15 minutes.
Elementary particle Elementary particles are the smallest units that make up matter. Matter is composed of subatomic particles smaller than atoms.