Aluminum electrolytic capacitors use oxide films that can be made into anodes by electrolysis as dielectrics.
Aluminum is used as the anode metal. Since dielectric films can be made thin, they have dominated the mainstream of large capacity capacitors. However, there are a few disadvantages, such as poor frequency and temperature characteristics, leakage current, and large dielectric loss.
These electrolytic type capacitors use tantalum for the anode.
Compared to aluminum electrolytic capacitors, they have excellent leakage current, frequency, and temperature characteristics.
These capacitors use an organic electrolytic solution and also an electric double layer formed on the surface of an activated carbon electrode as a dielectric.
They have a capacitance that is more than 1000 times to 10,000 times greater than aluminum electrolytic capacitors, and they can be used repeatedly for a long period without limitations such as the number of charge/discharge cycles.
These capacitors, which use ceramics as a dielectric, are roughly divided into three types depending on the type of ceramics used: a low dielectric constant type, a high dielectric constant type, and a semiconductor type. One property of ceramic capacitors is that the capacity changes as voltage is applied. This property appears more prominently with a larger dielectric constant.
Polyester, polypropylene and other films are sandwiched between the electrode foils on both sides, and they are structured into a cylindrical shape. These capacitors are nonpolar, with high insulation resistance and no dielectric loss. In addition, they also have good frequency and temperature characteristics.
These capacitors use mica, which is the best dielectric produced in nature.
Although mica capacitors have excellent characteristics such as insulation resistance, dielectric loss tangent, frequency, and temperature characteristics, a disadvantage is that they are expensive.