Types of capacitors. Basic component knowledge

2015.10.06

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Aluminum electrolytic capacitors

Aluminum electrolytic capacitors use the oxide film created on the anode by electrolysis as the dielectric. Aluminum is used as the anode metal. Since the dielectric film can be made thin, they are the mainstream type for high-capacity capacitors. They suffer from numerous disadvantages, including poor frequency characteristics and temperature characteristics, large leakage current and dielectric loss, etc.

Tantalum capacitors

Tantalum capacitors are electrolytic capacitors that use tantalum for the anode. They have better leakage current characteristics, frequency characteristics, and temperature characteristics compared to aluminum electrolytic capacitors.

Electric double-layer capacitors

Electric double-layer capacitors are capacitors that use the electric double layer formed on the activated carbon electrode surface as the dielectric and an organic electrolytic solution. Compared to capacitor types such as aluminum electrolytic capacitors, etc., the electrostatic capacitance is more than 103 to 104 times larger and they can be used over a long period of time without limitations on charge/discharge times, etc.

Ceramic capacitors

Ceramic capacitors are capacitors that use ceramic as the dielectric. They can be broadly classified into three types depending on the type of ceramic: low-dielectric-constant type, high-dielectric-constant type, and semiconductor type. Ceramic capacitors have the property of a capacitance that changes as voltage is applied. This characteristic is more pronounced for higher dielectric constants.

Film capacitors

Film capacitors are made of films such as polyester, polypropylene, etc. sandwiched on both sides by foil and rolled into a cylindrical shape to form an enclosed structure. They have no polarity, insulation resistance is high, and there is no dielectric loss. They also have the features of good frequency characteristics and good temperature characteristics.

Mica capacitors

Mica capacitors use mica, the best dielectric created by nature, as the dielectric. Mica capacitors have excellent characteristics such as insulation resistance, dielectric loss tangent, frequency characteristics, temperature characteristics, etc., but their drawback is their high cost.

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